Instructional-Design Theories and Models: Volume IV, The Learner-Centered Paradigm of Education

Edited by Charles M. Reigeluth, Brian J. Beatty & Rodney D. Myers       2017

Chapter 9

Designing Instruction for Self-Regulated Learning

Yeol Huh & Charles M. Reigeluth

 

Editors’ Foreword

 

Preconditions (when to use the theory)

      Content

  • All content.

      Learners

  • All students.

      Learning environments

  • Learner-centered rather than teacher-centered (learning is more important than “covering”

                content).

      Instructional development constraints

  • Minimal.

 

Values (opinions about what is important)

      About ends (learning goals)

  • Helping each learner to further develop self-regulation skills is highly valued.

  • Helping learners to develop each other’s self-regulation skills is highly valued.

      About means (instructional methods)

  • Treating each learner with respect and caring is highly valued.

  • Embracing individual differences, capitalizing on individual strengths, and addressing individual weaknesses are highly valued.

      About priorities (criteria for successful instruction)

  • Efficiency is less important than effectiveness and appeal.

      About power (to make decisions about the previous three)

  • Providing as much learner control over what to learn, how to learn it, and when and where to learn it as the learner can deal with effectively is highly valued.

 

Universal Principles

     1. Use a problem- or project-oriented task

  • Choice of task: The teacher should help the learner develop SRL skills to identify a task of considerable learner interest that encompasses the learning of multiple standards across several content domains.

  • Instructional approach: Teacher-centered instruction should be replaced by such learner-centered options as problem-based learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning.

     2. Provide enough time and guidance for preparation

  • Help the learner to develop SRL strategies to set learning and task goals, performance standards, and processes and strategies.

  • Embrace individual differences in goals, given learners’ different goal orientations.

  • Help learners develop the SRL skills to recall relevant prior knowledge and experience.

     3. Ensure ongoing assessment

  • Formative ongoing assessment: The teacher should help learners develop the SRL skill of ongoing self-assessment – to keep asking themselves questions such as “Is my strategy working?” constantly throughout the SRL process.

  • Summative authentic integrated assessment: Teachers should assess two things: task performance and attainment of competencies.

  • Feedback from others: Provide learners with timely feedback from peer learners as well as teachers.

     4. Model SRL for learners

  • Teacher modeling: Teachers should model SRL both within and outside the classroom.

  • Peer modeling: Peer modeling promotes learners’ self-efficacy with SRL skills and processes.

     5. Provide learners with opportunities for application

  • Facilitate learners’ application skills by grouping them and having them demonstrate what they do well in terms of SRL to their peers.

  • Provide opportunities for the learners to explore new ways to use their SRL skills in everyday life.

     6. Provide learners with instruction on SRL skills and knowledge

  • Micro-level instruction: Utilize Merrill’s (2006, 2007) three-part skill development model: Generality, Demonstration, and Practice with Feedback.

  • Macro-level instruction: Based on the Elaboration Theory’s Simplifying Conditions Method, include all three phases of the entire SRL process: Planning, Performing, and Reflecting.

 

Situational Principles

      When class size is large

  • Actively utilize team-based learning activities to meet different learners’ needs, since large class size may lead to reduced ability to embrace individual student differences and meet individual needs.

      When time is limited

  • Design and implement interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary instruction to help improve efficiency while maintaining core characteristics of SRL instruction and learner-centered instruction.

      When learners are young

  • Use differentiated guidance to better support early education learners’ SRL. 

 

Implementation issues

      Teacher acceptance of SRL: Teachers who do not understand or accept the veracity of SRL may not be effective implementers.

      Teacher experience with SRL: Teachers new to SRL may need professional development and mentoring.

      Teachers need time to prepare and implement SRL: Administration must be willing to provide time and schedule flexibility to

                support teacher planning and for the implementation of SRL in courses. 

                                                                                                                                                                                       –  C.M.R., B.J.B & R.D.M.