Instructional Design and Assessment

What should instruction and and assessment be like in the new paradigm of education?  On my home page, I talked about how it must be personalized and competency-based, with collaborative projects, personalized tutorials, and a different kind of student assessment (hence we call it personalized competency-based education – PCBE – or just the learner-centered paradigm of education).  What does each of these mean?  Our latest thinking is represented in the two books shown on the right.  Here, I summarize five fundamental principles related to instruction and assessment: 

  1. Competency-based education

  2. Learning by doing with instructional support

  3. Personalized learning

  4. Changed roles

New Book!     2021
  The purpose of this book is to update guidance for the instructional design/development process by integrating instructional design theory into the ID process and by using a more holistic, vision-based approach to designing the instruction, along with eight other important innovations.
Merging Soft Cover Photo.tif

1. Competency-Based Education

There are four aspects of CBE, and all four must be used together for them to work: student progress, assessment, targets, and records.

A: Competency-based student progress

In a competency-based system, students move on when they have learned and can demonstrate the understandings or skills. If it’s important enough to teach, it is important enough to make sure students learn it. Thus, no student moves on before mastering the current topic, and each student moves on as soon as he or she masters the current topic. Student progress is based on learning rather than time.

B: Competency-based student assessment

For a student to move on as soon as he or she has learned the current material, the teacher must know when the student has mastered it.  Hence, PCBE requires a different paradigm of assessment—criterion-referenced assessment—which compares student performance to a standard (or criterion), rather than comparing students to each other (norm-referenced assessment).

C: Competency-based learning targets

To know when each student has learned the current material, the teachers have to define the content in the form of learning targets, which are more detailed than typical state and national standards.  To avoid fragmentation, learning by doing (principle E) places the learning targets within a holistic, meaningful context.

D: Competency-based student records

To make decisions about what a student should learn next, one must know what the student has already learned. Current student records only tell you the courses the student attended and grades that tell you how well the student did compared to other students. What you need instead is a list of individual learning targets the student has mastered, often accompanied by a portfolio, rubric assessment, or other proof of mastery, sometimes called a digital backpack.

3. Personalized Learning

To accelerate learning and help all students reach their potential, it is essential to customize the learning experience.  Personalized instruction does not mean that students must learn alone. In fact, teacher guidance and collaborative project-based learning are common parts of PCBE.  A good way to personalize the instruction is to help each student make good choices in all the following areas: goals, projects, scaffolding (primarily just-in-time tutorials), assessments, and reflections.  Each student should have a personal learning plan.

visionactioncover.png
New Award-Winning Book!    2020

The purpose of this book is to help teams of educators (teachers, administrators, staff, coaches, facilitators, and even board members), parents, and students to transform their school systems to personalized competency-based education.  We offer proven ideas and methods both for a vision of PCBE and for the action (or process) for trans-forming your school or district to that vision.

Award-Winning Book      2017

The themes of this book are a) shifting the paradigm of instruction from teacher-centered to learner-centered and b) integrating design theories of instruction, assessment, and curriculum. Chapters are collected into three primary sections: 1) a comprehensive view of the learner-centered paradigm of education and training, 2) elaborations on parts of that view for a variety of K-12 and higher education settings, and 3) theories that address ways to move toward the learner-centered paradigm within the teacher-centered paradigm. 

2. Learning by Doing with Instructional Support

There are three aspects of learning by doing: projects, instructional support, and collaboration.

A. Projects

Generally, the most effective way to learn is by doing, especially for younger students. We collectively refer to all forms of learning-by-doing as project-based instruction, which enhances motivation, retention, and transfer to the real world.  In project-based instruction, each student chooses or designs a project as a vehicle to master specific content.  Projects are typically interdisciplinary, of significant scope, and as students grow older, focused on bettering the student’s world, not just the student.  

B. Instructional support

Sometimes called scaffolding, accelerates learning and helps all students reach their potential. It can take the form of adjusting, coaching, or tutoring.  Adjusting entails tailoring the complexity or difficulty of the project to the level of the student.  Coaching includes giving suggestions or hints to the student while the student is performing.  Tutoring involves teaching the student a competency, preferably just before it is needed in a project.

C. Collaborative learning

Collaboration is increasingly important in work environments. Collaborating in the school environment will help prepare students for that.  Other benefits are that the helper learns too, it builds community and interpersonal skills, it enhances motivation, it develops critical thinking, and it frees up teacher time.  Collaboration can take the form of team-based projects (which promote deeper collaboration) or peer assistance (for single-student projects).

Publications: Books

The following books are primarily about instruction -- ways to facilitate learning.

Reigeluth, C.M., & An, Y.  (2021).  Merging the Instructional Design Process with Learner-Centered Theory: The Holistic 4D Model.  New York, NY: Routledge.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Karnopp, J.R. (2020).  Vision and Action:  Reinventing Schools through Personalized Competency-Based Education.  Bloomington, IN: Marzano Resources.  (AECT Outstanding Book Award)

Reigeluth, C.M., Beatty, B.J., & Myers, R.D.  (Eds.) (2017). Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Volume IV: The Learner-Centered Paradigm of Education New York: Routledge.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Carr-Chellman, A. (Eds.)  (2009).  Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Volume III: Building a Common Knowledge Base.  New York: Routledge. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9647.2011.00772.x  (AECT Outstanding Book Award)

Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.)  (1999).  Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Volume II: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.  (AECT Outstanding Book Award)

Leshin, C.B., Pollock, J., and Reigeluth, C.M. (1992).  Instructional Design Strategies and Tactics.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.) (1987).  Instructional Theories in Action: Lessons Illustrating Selected Theories and Models.  Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum Associates.  (AECT Outstanding Book Award)

Reigeluth, C.M., and Merrill, M.D. (1984).  Extended Task Analysis Procedure: User's Manual.  Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.) (1983).  Instructional-Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status.  Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum Associates.  (AECT Outstanding Book Award)

Publications: Chapters in Books

The following chapters are primarily about instruction -- ways to facilitate learning.  They include chapters in books I have edited.

Honebein, P.C., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2020).  Making good design judgments via the instructional theory framework (Chapter 17).  In J.K. McDonald & R.E. West (Eds.), Design for learning: Principles, processes, and praxis (1st ed.).  EdTech Books.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Kim, M. (2018).  Instructional theory.  In B. Frey (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 835-838). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781506326139.n334

 

Huh, Y., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2017).  Designing instruction for self-regulated learning (Chapter 9, pp. 243-267).  In C. Reigeluth, B. Beatty & R. Myers (Eds.), Instructional-design theories and models, Volume IV: The learner-centered paradigm of education.  New York: Routledge.

Myers, R.D., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2017).  Designing games for learning (Chapter 8, pp. 205-242).  In C. Reigeluth, B. Beatty & R. Myers (Eds.), Instructional-design theories and models, Volume IV: The learner-centered paradigm of education.  New York: Routledge.

Reigeluth, C.M. (2017).  The learner-centered paradigm of instruction In A. Carr-Chellman & G. Rowland (Eds.), Issues in technology, learning, and instructional design: Classic and contemporary debates.  New York, NY: Routledge.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Aslan, S.  (2014).  Elaboration theory: A theory to organize and sequence instructional content.  In J.M. Spector (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology.  Sage Publications.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (2012).  Instructional theory and technology for a post-industrial world (Chapter 8, pp. 75-83).  In R.A. Reiser & J.V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 75-83).  Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 

Reigeluth, C.M., & Keller, J.B.  (2009).  Understanding instruction (Chapter 2, pp. 27-39).  In C. M. Reigeluth & A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Volume III: Building a Common Knowledge Base. New York: Routledge.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (2009).  Instructional theory for education in the Information Age (Chapter 18, pp. 387-399).  In C. M. Reigeluth & A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Volume III: Building a Common Knowledge Base.  New York: Routledge.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (2007).  Order, first step to mastery: An introduction to sequencing in instructional design (Chapter 2, pp. 19-40).  In F. Ritter, J. Nerb, E. Lehtinen, & T. O’Shea (Eds.), In Order to Learn: How the Sequence of Topics Influences Learning.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (2005).  New instructional theories and strategies for a knowledge-based society (Chapter 12, pp. 207-217).  In J. Spector, C. Ohrazda, A. Van Schaack, & D. Wiley (Eds.), Innovations in Instructional Technology: Essays in Honor of M. David Merrill. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Beatty, B.J.  (2004).  Instructional Systems Design (Chapter 2, pp. 33-54).  In M. Mukhopadhyay (Ed.), Educational Technology: Knowledge Assessment. New Delhi: Shipra.

Molenda, M., Reigeluth, C.M., & Nelson, L. M. (2003). Instructional Design.  In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Vol. 2, pp. 574 - 578.  London: Nature Publishing Group.

Oswald, D., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2003).  Instructional-Design Theory In J. Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Education (2ndEd.).  New York: Macmillan.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (2003).  Elaboration Theory In A. Kovalchik & K. Dawson (Eds.), Education and Technology: An Encyclopedia.  Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio.

Carr-Chelman, A.A., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2002).  Whistling in the Dark?  ID in the Schools (Chapter 18, pp. 239-255) In R.A. Reiser & J.A. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Martin, B.L., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (1999).  Affective education and the affective domain: Implications for instructional design theories and models (Chapter 20, pp 485-509). In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Volume II: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory.  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1999).  What is instructional-design theory and how is it changing? (Chapter 1, pp. 5-29).  In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory.  (Volume II).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1999).  The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence decisions (Chapter 18, pp. 425-453). In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory.  (Volume II).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Moore, J.A.  (1999).  Cognitive education and the cognitive domain (Chapter 3, pp. 51-68). In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory.  (Volume II).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Nelson, L.M.  (1997).  A new paradigm of ISD? (pp. 24-35). In R.M. Branch & B.B Minor (Eds.), Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, Volume 22.  Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.  [An earlier version was published in Educational Technology, 36(3).]

Molenda, M., Pershing, J., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (1996).  Designing instructional systems (Chapter 13, pp. 266-293).  In R. Craig (Ed.), Training and Development Handbook (4th Ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1995).  Educational systems development and its relationship to ISD (Chapter 6, pp. 84-93).  In. G. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional Technology: Past, Present, and Future (2nd ed.).  Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1994).  Instructional design theories (pp. 715-720).  In T. Husén & T.N. Postlethwaite (Eds.). International Encyclopedia of Education (2nd ed.), Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.  Also in E. de Corte & F. E. Weinert (Eds.). International Encyclopedia of Developmental and Instructional Psychology, Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Rowland, G.  (1994).  Task analysis (pp. 5910-5914).  In T. Husén & T.N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (2nd ed.). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.  Also in E. de Corte & F. E. Weinert (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Developmental and Instructional Psychology. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1993).  Functions of an automated instructional design system (Chapter 3, pp. 43-58).  In J.M. Spector, M.C. Polson, & D.J. Muraida (Eds.), Automating Instructional Design: Concepts and Issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Educational Technology Publications.

Reigeluth, C.M. (1990).  Instructional strategies and tactics (pp. 314-319).  In T. Husén & T. Postlethwaite (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Education, Supplementary Volume Two.  Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.

Petry, B., Mouton, H., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1987).  A lesson based on the Gagné-Briggs theory of instruction (Chapter 2, pp. 11-44).  In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Theories in Action: Lessons Illustrating Selected Theories and Models.  Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth, C.M. (1987).  Introduction (Chapter 1, pp. 1-10).  In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Theories in Action: Lesson Illustrating Selected Theories and Models.  Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth, C.M. (1987).  Lesson blueprints based on the elaboration theory of instruction (Chapter 8, pp. 245-288).  In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Theories in Action: Lessons Illustrating Selected Theories and Models.  Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Curtis, R.V. (1987).  Learning situations and instructional models (Chapter 7, pp. 175-206).  In R.M. Gagné (Ed.), Instructional Technology: Foundations.  Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth, C.M. (1983).  Instructional design: What is it and why is it? (Chapter 1, pp. 3-36).  In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status.  Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Stein, F.S.  (1983).  The elaboration theory of instruction (Chapter 10, pp. 335-381).  In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status.  Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum Associates.

Sari, I.F., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1982).  Writing and evaluating textbooks: Contributions from instructional theory (Chapter 4, pp. 53-90).  In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Technology of Text: Principles for Structuring, Designing and Displaying Text.  Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Educational Technology Publications.

Merrill, M.D., Reigeluth, C.M., & Faust, G.W. (1979).  The Instructional Quality Profile: A curriculum evaluation and design tool (Chapter 6, pp. 165-204).  In H.F. O'Neil, Jr. (Ed.), Procedures for Instructional Systems Development.  New York: Academic Press.

Publications: Journal Articles

The following articles are primarily about instruction -- ways to facilitate learning.  Full documents are available for most.

Lin, C-Y., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2021).  Guidance for wiki-supported collaborative learning and community knowledge building for an entire class: Enhancing learning environments during the COVID19 pandemic.  Revista de Educación a Distancia, 21(65).  DOI: 10.6018/red.447401. (In English)

Honebein, P., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2020).  The instructional theory framework appears lost. Isn’t it time we find it again? Revista de Educación a Distancia, 20(64). Published Sep 30, 2020. DOI: 10.6018/red.405871. (In English)

Lin, C.Y, & Reigeluth, C.M. (2019).  Scaffolding learner autonomy in a wiki-supported knowledge building community and its implications for mindset change.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(5), 2667-2684.  DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12713

Huh, Y., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2017).  Self-regulated learning: The continuous-change conceptual framework and a vision of new paradigm, technology system, and pedagogical support.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(2), 191-214.  DOI: 10.1177/0047239517710769

Jung, E., Kim, M., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2016). Learning in action: How competent professionals learn.  Performance Improvement Quarterly, 28(4), 55-69.  DOI 10.1002/piq.21209

Lin, C-Y., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2016).  Scaffolding wiki‐supported collaborative learning for small‐group projects and whole‐class collaborative knowledge building. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(6), 529-547.  DOI 10.1111/jcal.12140

Lee, D., Huh, Y., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2015).  Collaboration, intragroup conflict, and social skills in project-based learning.  Instructional Science, 43, 561-590.  DOI 10.1007/s11251-015-9348-7  http://rdcu.be/mE3M

Aslan, S., Reigeluth, C.M., & Thomas, D.  (2014).  Transforming education with self-directed project-based learning: The Minnesota New Country School. Educational Technology, 54(3), 39-42.

Huh, Y., Reigeluth, C.M., & Lee, D.  (2014).  Collective efficacy and its relationship with leadership in computer-mediated project-based group work. Contemporary Educational Technology, 5(1), 1-21.

Simsek, A. (2013). Interview with Charles M. Reigeluth: Applying instructional design to educational reform. Contemporary Educational Technology, 4(1), 81-86.

Reigeluth, C.M. (2012).  Teoría instruccional y tecnología para el nuevo paradigma de la educación. Revista de Educación a Distancia, 32. September 2012.  DOI: 10.6018/red/50/1a.  Also published in English as Reigeluth, C.M.  (2012, 2016).  Instructional theory and technology for the new paradigm of education.  Revista de Educación a Distancia, 32. September 30, 2012.  DOI 10.6018/red/50/1b.  Also published in Chinese in 2012 by the Journal of Distance Education, No. 6, 86-93.

Reigeluth, C.M. (2011).  An instructional theory for the post-industrial age. Educational Technology, 51(5), 25-29.

Duan, M.J., Pei, X.N., & Li, X. (2009). A paradigm shift in the educational system: A dialogue with Dr. Charles M. Reigeluth - An international instructional design expert.  China Educational Technology, 268, 1-6.

Lee, J.Y, & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2009).  Heuristic task analysis on e-learning course development: A formative research study.  Asia Pacific Educational Review, 10(1), 169-181.  DOI 10.1007/s12564-009-9016-1

Shaughnessy, M.F., & Fulgham, S.M.  (2009).  Q&A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Charles M. Reigeluth.  Educational Technology, 49(3), 37-42.

An, Y.J., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2008).  Problem-based learning in online environments.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 9(1), 1-16.

Lee, J.Y., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2003).  Formative research on the heuristic task analysis process.  Educational Technology Research & Development, 5 (4), 5-24.  DOI 10.1007/BF02504541

Reigeluth, C.M.  (2003).  New instructional theories and strategies for a knowledge-based society.  Educational Technology International, 5(1), 63-75. 

Reigeluth, C.M.  (2003).  Knowledge building for use of the Internet in education.  Instructional Science, 31(4), 341-346.  DOI: 10.1023/A:1024694228065

Sheng, Q., & Cheng, J.  (2003).  New perspective needed for the design of teaching: Interview with Professor Charles M. Reigeluth.  Global Education, 32(7), 3-5.

Oswald, D.F.  (2002).  A conversation with Charles M. Reigeluth. Educational Technology, 42(3), 56-59.

Reigeluth, C.M., Pershing, J.A., & Park, S.H.  (1998).  A new paradigm for corporate training.  Strategic Human Resource Development Review, 1(2), 5-50.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Squire, K.  (1998).  Emerging work on the new paradigm of instructional theories.  Educational Technology, 38(4), 41-47.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1997).  Instructional theory, practitioner needs, and new directions: Some reflections.  Educational Technology, 37(1), 42-47.

English, R.E., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (1996).  Formative research on sequencing instruction with the elaboration theory.  Educational Technology Research & Development, 44(1), 23-42.  DOI: 10.1007/BF02300324

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1996).  A new paradigm of ISD?  Educational Technology, 36(3), 13-20.  (A revised version was published in the Educational Media and Technology Yearbook.)

Beissner, K.L., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (1994).  A case study on course sequencing with multiple strands using the elaboration theory. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 7(2), 38-61.  DOI: 10.1111/J.1937-8327.1994.TB00624.X

Chung, J., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (1992).  Instructional prescriptions for learner control.  Educational Technology, 32(10), 14-20.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1992).  Elaborating the elaboration theory.  Educational Technology Research & Development, 40(3), 80-86.  DOI: 10.1007/BF02296844

Armstrong, R.B., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (1991).  The TIP theory: Prescriptions for designing instruction for teams.  Performance Improvement Quarterly, 4(3), 13-40.

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1991).  Reflections on the implications of constructivism for educational technology.  Educational Technology, 31(9), 34-37.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Schwartz, E. (1989).  An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations.  Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Golden, A.R., Bentti, F.E., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1988).  The effects of non-examples on procedure learning.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 16(3), 253-263.

Marcone, S., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1988).  Teaching common errors in applying a procedure.  Educational Communications and Technology Journal, 36(1), 23-32.

Young, J.M., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1988).  Textbooks: A question of quality.  Fastback No. 275, Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa.

Frey, L., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1986).  Instructional models for tutoring: A review.  Journal of Instructional Development, 9(1), 2-8.

Van Patten, J., Chao, C., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1986).  A review of strategies for sequencing and synthesizing instruction. Review of Educational Research, 56(4), 437-471.  DOI: 10.3102/00346543056004437

Curtis, R.V., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1984).  The use of analogies in written text. Instructional Science, 13(2), 99-117.  DOI: 10.1007/BF00052380

Reigeluth, C.M., & Garfield, J.M. (1984).  Using videodiscs in instruction: Realizing their potential through instructional design.  Videodisc and Optical Disk, 4(3), 199-215.

Sweeney, J., & Reigeluth, C.M. (Aug. 1984).  Lecture and instructional design: A contradiction in terms?  Educational Technology, 24(8), 7-12.

Reigeluth, C.M. (1983).  Meaningfulness and instruction: Relating what is being learned to what a student knows.  Instructional Science, 12(3), 197-218.  DOI: 10.1007/BF00051745

Reigeluth, C.M. (1983).  The integration of task analysis and instructional design.  Journal of Instructional Development, 6(4), 24-30.

Yucha, C., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1983).  The use of computers in nursing education, practice and administration.  Computers and Education, 7(4), 223-226.  DOI 10.1016/0360-1315(83)90011-8

Reigeluth, C.M., & Darwazeh, A.N. (1982).  The elaboration theory's procedure for designing instruction: A conceptual approach.  Journal of Instructional Development, 5(3), 22-32.

Reigeluth, C.M. (1981).  Una disciplina joven que influira en su vida. Revista de Tecnoloqia Educativa, 7(1), 82-85.

Reigeluth, C.M., Van Patten, J., & Doughty, P. (1981).  Science approach to instructional development.  NSPI Journal, 20(7), 19-22.

Reigeluth, C.M. (March, 1980).  The Instructional Quality Profile: Training teachers to teach effectively.  Educational Technology, 20(3), 7-16.

Reigeluth, C.M., Merrill, M.D., Wilson, B.G., & Spiller, R.T. (1980).  The Elaboration Theory of Instruction: A model for sequencing and synthesizing instruction.  Instructional Science, 9(3), 195-219.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Rodgers, C.A. (1980).  The Elaboration Theory of Instruction: Prescriptions for task analysis and design.  NSPI Journal, 19(1), 16-26.  (Invited article).

Reigeluth, C.M., & Sari, I.F. (1980).  From better tests to better texts: Instructional design models for writing better textbooks.  NSPI Journal, 19(8), 4-9.  (Invited article).

Reigeluth, C.M. (1979).  In search of a better way to organize instruction: The Elaboration Theory.  Journal of Instructional Development, 2(3), 8-15. DOI:10.1007/BF02984374

Reigeluth, C.M. (1979).  TICCIT to the future: Advances in instructional theory for CAI.  Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 6(2), 40-46.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Merrill, M.D. (March, 1979).  Classes of instructional variables.  Educational Technology, 19(3), 5-24.

Reigeluth, C.M., Bunderson, C.V., & Merrill, M.D. (1978).  What is the design science of instruction?  Journal of Instructional Development, 1(2), 11-16.

Reigeluth, C.M., & Merrill, M.D. (1978).  A knowledge base for improving our methods of instruction.  Educational Psychologist, 13, 57-70.  DOI: 10.1080/00461527809529195

Reigeluth, C.M., Bunderson, C.V., & Merrill, M.D. (1978).  The structure of subject-matter content and its instructional design implications. Instructional Science, 7, 107-126. DOI:10.1007/BF00121929

4. Changed Roles

In order for the other three fundamental changes to be successful, there must be fundamental changes to four kinds of roles: teacher, student, parent, and technology.

A. Teacher as guide

The teacher’s role must change dramatically to effectively implement PCBE. Your team should consider the following five roles for teachers: mentor, designer (or curator), facilitator, collaborator and consultor, and learner.

B. Self-directed student

Lifelong learning is becoming essential as the pace of change continues to accelerate in the post-industrial era.  Teachers should help students to develop agencyby giving them voice and choice, helping them develop goals that better their world, and helping them learn how to self-regulate effectively.  Self-direction skills, responsibility, and empowerment are key.

C. Parent as partner

Parents and other primary guardians are children’s first and most important teachers. Students will be better off to the extent that parents are effective partners with teachers in their child’s learning and development, especially at lower age levels.

D. Technology as tool for students

Technology can ease the burdens of PCBE on teachers by serving four major functions to support student learning: record keeping for student learning, planning for student learning, instruction for student learning, and assessment for/of student learning.

Further Information

The most comprehensive and up-to-date information about these fundamental aspects of PCBE can be found in my 2020 book, Vision and Action: Reinventing Schools through Personalized Competency-Based Education.

For information about how to design instruction for the PCBE paradigm, see Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Volumes I, II, III, and IV.

For detailed guidance about how to design instruction for the PCBE paradigm, see my latest book, Merging the Instructional Design Process with Learner-Centered Theory: The Holistic 4D Model (Reigeluth & An, 2021).

Below is a list of my publications related to instructional  design and assessment.  For information about other publications of mine, click on this button.

Photo of Vol4.jpg