Issue 
Radioprotection
Volume 53, Number 2, AprilJune 2018



Page(s)  145  148  
DOI  https://doi.org/10.1051/radiopro/2018008  
Published online  16 May 2018 
Article
Comparison of mass attenuation coefficients of concretes using FLUKA, XCOM and experiment results
^{1}
Department of Physics, Karnatak University,
580003
Dharwad, India
^{2}
Department of Nuclear Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sinop University,
57000,
Sinop, Turkey
^{*} Corresponding author: kudphyvps@rediffmail.com
Received:
27
March
2016
Accepted:
24
February
2018
The mass attenuation coefficients of seven different types of normal and heavy concretes like ordinary, hematiteserpentine, ilmenitelimonite, basaltmagnetite, ilmenite, steelscrap and steelmagnetite concretes has been simulated using FLUKA Monte Carlo code at high energies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV. The mass attenuation coefficients and linear attenuation coefficient of the concretes were found dependent upon the chemical composition, density and gamma ray energy. FLUKA Monte Carlo code results were found in good agreement with experimental and theoretical XCOM data. Our investigations for high energy gammaray interaction validate the FLUKA Monte Carlo code for use where experimental gammaray interaction results are not available.
Key words: gamma / mass attenuation coefficients / FLUKA / XCOM
© EDP Sciences 2018
1 Introduction
Rapid increase in investigations of radiation interaction processes in computer environment using the Monte Carlo simulation has made easy nuclear engineering and technology. The Monte Carlo simulation is used in radiation transportation, shielding, detector response, medical applications and radiobiology, etc. The simulation process is the method for study of highenergy radiation interaction process where experiments are not possible. The shielding efficiency of a compound or a mixture is characterized by mass attenuation coefficients. The mass attenuation coefficients are a principle parameter for gammaray interaction. Other gammaray interaction parameters (e.g. halfvalue layer, tenthvalue layer, effective atomic number and effective electron density) are being derived by using the mass attenuation coefficients. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the mass attenuation coefficients of materials used in shielding applications for nuclear reactors, accelerators, medical facilities, radiation protection and radiation dosimetry, etc. The radiation shielding has been a thrust area for optimization of radiation protection. The shielding materials are chosen as combination of low and highZ elements for gammaray and neutron (Bashter, 1997; Singh and Badiger, 2012). Various types of normal and heavy concretes shielding materials have been developed to minimize the construction cost of reactor biological shielding and containments with improved shielding efficiency materials (Bashter, 1997; Shirmardi et al., 2013). The glasses as transparent shielding materials are also being used in nuclear reactors (Singh et al., 2014). Various investigations have been done for calculation of shielding parameters and effectiveness of the different types of concretes (Makarious et al., 1988; Bashter et al., 1996; Makarious et al., 1996; Bashter, 1997; Singh and Badiger, 2012; Akkurt and ElKhayatt, 2013; Shirmardi et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2014). Bashter (1997) experimentally investigated the attenuation coefficients (shielding parameters) of concretes. The simulations of gammaray for shielding application are found elsewhere in literatures. The shielding for reactor core and accelerator are designed using the Monte Carlo code simulation results.
The gammaray interaction is characterized by partial interactions namely, photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering and pair production depending upon the energy and atomic number of the material or effective atomic numbers of the compound or mixture. The theoretical values for mass attenuation coefficients and cross sections for different elements, compounds and mixtures have been tabulated by Berger and Hubbell and given in the form of XCOM program at energies 1 keV to 100 GeV (Berger et al., 2010). The new version of this software, called WinXcom (Gerward et al., 2004) is nowadays used as userfriendly software to generate the desired data in Microsoft excel file in windows operating system.
FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo simulation package for calculations of particle transport and interactions with matter. It is being used in various applications such as proton, electron accelerators shielding design, activity, dosimetry, detector design, cosmic rays, neutron physics, radiotherapy, accelerator driven system, etc. Also, it is useful in many scientific areas (high energy experimental physics and engineering, detector and telescope design, medical physics and radiobiology). FLUKA can simulate with high accuracy the interaction of more than 60 different types of particles such as heavyions, electrons, neutrons, photons, neutrinos, muons, and their antiparticles in many types of research fields and applications (Ferrari et al., 2005; Battistoni et al., 2007; Mark et al., 2007). The FLUKA can be used for transport of synchrotron radiation and optical photons too. FLUKA simulation code has been used in low and intermediate energy gammaray for investigation of radiation characteristics of soil (Wielopolski et al., 2005), shielding materials (Agosteo et al., 2005), X, gammaray or radiation protection (Nariyama et al., 2003; Beskrovnaia et al., 2008), neutron shielding characteristics (Korkut et al., 2010), and water, concrete and bakelite (Demir et al., 2013). FLUKA code has been used in low and intermediateenergies for gamma ray calculation of mass attenuation coefficients and good agreement is observed with experimental results (Demir et al., 2013). However, the FLUKA has not been tested for highenergy gamma ray with experimental results. This has encouraged us to utilize the FLUKA for gammaray interaction parameters for highenergies.
The aim of the present study is investigation of mass attenuation coefficients for high energy gammaray for ordinary, hematiteserpentine, ilmenitelimonite, basaltmagnetite, ilmenite, steelscrap and steelmagnetite concretes using FLUKA code. First of all, the mass attenuation coefficients of the selected concretes for photon energy 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV were calculated by using FLUKA code, and the linear attenuation coefficients were estimated. Finally the simulated results of linear attenuation coefficients were compared with the experimental data provided in the literature (Bashter, 1997). Good agreement among FLUKA code, XCOM data and experimental results for high energy gammaray was observed. The variation of mass attenuation coefficients determined using FLUKA code is shown graphically.
2 Materials and computational method
Different types of normal and heavy concretes have been taken in the literature of Bashter (1997), whose elemental compositions and densities are given in Table 1. These concretes are ordinary (OR), hematiteserpentine (HS), ilmenitelimonite (IL), basaltmagnetite (BM), ilmenite (IT), steelscrap (SS) and steelmagnetite (SM) used in various applications of the shielding.
Elemental compositions of different types of concretes (Bashter, 1997).
2.1 FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation code
The Monte Carlo method is based on random numbers and mathematical algorithms (RamirezLopez et al., 2011). It can be applied for physical systems, especially in nuclear science and engineering (Ferrari et al., 2005; Battistoni et al., 2007) as a Monte Carlo simulator. It is a Monte Carlo package used in interactions between all subatomic particles and matter. It has many advantages in terms of wide energy range. There are several studies using this Monte Carlo simulation code (Korkut et al., 2010, 2011, 2012; RamirezLopez et al., 2011; Singh et al., 2015).
In the simulations, the latest version of FLUKA (2011.2b.4) was used. We have obtained I/I_{0} photon transmission values at 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV photon energies by means of FLUKA code. The simulation has been done for all types of concretes. Linear attenuation coefficient is calculated using Lambert Beer Law (I/I_{0} = exp(μx)). In this law, I_{0} is photon transmission, I is linear attenuation coefficient and x is the thickness of the sample. After the simulation process gamma transmission values have been read from FLUKA output file.^{1}
2.2 XCOM program
The transmission of gammaray (I = I_{0} exp(μt)) is dependent upon the thickness, t of the interacting medium and linear attenuation coefficient, μ. The μ is calculated by multiplication of mass attenuation coefficients, μ/ρ and density. The μ/ρ of the concretes are calculated by the mixture rule where w_{i} is the proportion by weight and (μ/ρ)_{i} is mass attenuation coefficient of the ith element by using XCOM or WinXcom. The linear attenuation coefficient of the concrete is multiplication of μ/ρ and the density of the concrete. The atomic number and atomic mass of elements have been taken from atomic weight of elements 2011, IUPAC (Michael et al., 2013). The uncertainties in μ/ρ values is about 1% for lowZ (1 < Z < 8) in Compton region (30 keV to 100 MeV). Below 30 keV energy, the uncertainties are as much as 5–10% because of correction to experiments for highZ impurities and departure of Compton cross section from KleinNishina theory.
3 Result and discussion
The linear attenuation coefficients, µ and mass attenuation coefficients, µ/ρ of the concretes have been investigated for highenergy (1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV) gammarays. Comparison of linear attenuation coefficients by using FLUKA code and experiment are provided in Table 2. The variation of mass attenuation coefficients for the ordinary concrete is shown in Figure 1.
Linear attenuation coefficients of the concretes by XCOM, experiment (Bashter, 1997) and FLUKA Monte Carlo code at 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV ordinary, hematiteserpentine, ilmenitelimonite, basaltmagnetite, ilmenite, steelscrap and steelmagnetite.
Fig. 1
Mass attenuation coefficients of ordinary concretes using FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation codes. 
3.1 Linear attenuation coefficients
The linear attenuation coefficient, μ of the concretes by FLUKA code, XCOM and experiment are shown for photon energies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV in Table 2. It is observed that the linear attenuation coefficients simulated using FLUKA, XCOM and the experiment are in very good agreement. Therefore, it is concluded that the FLUKA is a useful simulation code for high energy gammarays interactions where data may not be available, analogous to the experiment.
3.2 Mass attenuation coefficient
The mass attenuation coefficients, µ/ρ using FLUKA code for ordinary concrete (as an example) with gammaray energy is shown in Figure 1. These µ/ρ values of the concretes decrease with the increase of gamma energy. The similar variation of the µ/ρ values with XCOM program can be found. The variation of the µ/ρ can be explained based on the partial interaction process Compton scattering and pairproduction in the high energy gammarays. The experimental data of µ/ρ of the concretes at energies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV can be calculated using the linear attenuation coefficients. The mass attenuation coefficients are parameterized by polynomial fitting of order two.
The linear attenuation coefficients of various types of high photon energies (1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV) concretes using FLUKA simulation in the present investigation shows that FLUKA simulation is a very effective and capable tool for simulation of shielding materials at low, medium [19] as well as high energies.
4 Conclusion
The mass attenuation coefficients, μ/ρ and linear attenuation coefficients, μ of different types of normal and heavy concretes, ordinary, hematiteserpentine, ilmenitelimonite, basaltmagnetite, ilmenite, steelscrap and steelmagnetite are compared for FLUKA simulation, experimental and XCOM theoretical data for energies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV. It was observed that the experimental and theoretical results are in very good agreement for the mass attenuation coefficients and linear attenuation coefficients. It is concluded that the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation code is a useful tool for high energy gammaray interactions where data may not be available, analogous to the experiment.
References
 Agosteo S, Cammi A, Garlati L, Lombardi C, Padovani E. 2005. Gamma dose from activation of internal shields in IRIS reactor. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 115: 86–91. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Akkurt I, ElKhayatt AM. 2013. Effective atomic number and electron density of marble concrete. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 295: 633–638. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Bashter II. 1997. Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients for shielding concretes. Ann. Nucl. Energy 24: 1389–1401. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Bashter II, Makarious AS, ElSayed Abdo AA. 1996. Investigation of hematiteserpentine and ilmenitelimonite concretes for reactor radiation shielding. Ann. Nucl. Energy 23: 65–71. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Battistoni G, Muraro S, Sala PR, Cerutti F, Ferrari A, Roesler S, Fasso A, Ranft J. 2007. The FLUKA code: Description and benchmarking. AIP Conf. Proc. 896: 31–49. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Berger MJ, Hubbell JH, Seltzer SM, Chang J, Coursey JS, Sukumar R, Zucker DS, K. Olsen K. 2010. XCOM: photon cross sections database, NIST standard reference database (XGAM). http://www.nist.gov/pml/data/xcom/index.cfm. [Google Scholar]
 Beskrovnaia L, Florko B, Paraipan M, Sobolevsky N, Timoshenko G. 2008. Verification of Monte Carlo transport codes FLUKA, GEANT4 and SHIELD for radiation protection purposes at relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 266: 4058–4060. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Demir N, Akar UT, Popovici MA, Demirci ZN, Gurler O, Akkurt I. 2013. Investigation of mass attenuation coefficients of water, concrete and Bakelite at different energies using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 298: 1303–1307. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Ferrari A, Sala PR, Fasso A, Ranft J. 2005. FLUKA: A multiparticle transportcode, CERN2005010, INFNTC_05/11, SLACR773. [Google Scholar]
 Gerward L, Guilbert N, Jensen KB, Levring H. 2004. WinXcoma program for calculating Xray attenuation coefficients. J. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 71: 653–654. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Korkut T, Karabulut A, Budak G, Korkut H. 2010. Investigation of fast neutron shielding characteristics depending on boron percentages of MgB_{2}, NaBH_{4} and KBH_{4}. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 286: 61–65. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Korkut T, Korkut H, Karabulut A, Budak G. 2011. A new radiation shielding material: amethyst ore. Ann. Nucl. Energy 38: 56–59. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Korkut T, Karabulut A, Budak G, Aygun B, Genel O, Hancerliogullari A. 2012. Investigation of neutron shielding properties depending on number of boron atoms for colemanite, ulexite and tincal ores by experiments and FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70: 341–345. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
 Makarious S, Bashter II, Kany AM. 1988. Radiative capture gamma rays arising from iron fibre additions to ilmenite concrete shields. Ann. Nucl. Energy 15(10/11): 513–521. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Makarious S, Bashter II, ElSayed AA, M. Samir AA, Kansouh WA. 1996. On the utilization of heavy concrete for radiation shielding. Ann. Nucl. Energy 23: 195–206. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Mark S, Khomchenko S, Shifrin M, Haviv Y, Schwartz JR, Orion I. 2007. TVFNMCRCó A powerful program for writing and executing simulation inputs for the FLUKA Monte Carlo code system. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 572: 929–934. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Michael EW et al. 2013. Atomic weight of elements 2011 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. 85(5): 1047–1078. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Nariyama N, Konnai A, Ohnishi S, Odano N. 2003. Calculation of dosimeter response for inhumanphantom measurement to lowenergy photons. In: Proceedings of the eleventh EGS4 users meeting in Japan, KEK proceedings 15: 53–58. [Google Scholar]
 RamirezLopez A, SotoCortes G, GonzalezTrejo J, MunozNegron D. 2011. Computational algorithms for simulating the grain structure formed on steel billets using cellular automaton and chaos theories. Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 18: 24–34. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Shirmardi SP, Shamsaei M, Naserpour M. 2013. Comparison of photon attenuation coefficients of various barite concretes and lead by MCNP code, XCOM and experimental data. Ann. Nucl. Energy 55: 288–291. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Singh VP, Badiger NM. 2012. Comprehensive study of energy absorption and exposure buildup factor for concrete shielding in photon energy range 0.01515 MeV upto 40 mfp penetration depth: dependency of density, chemical element, photon energy. Int. J. Nucl. Eng. Sci. Tech. 7: 75–99. [Google Scholar]
 Singh VP, Badiger NM, Chanthima N, Kaewkhao J. 2014. Evaluation of gammaray exposure buildup factors and neutron shielding for bismuth borosilicate glasses. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 98: 14–21. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Singh VP, Shirmardi SP, Medhat ME, Badiger NM. 2015. Determination of mass attenuation coefficient for some polymers using Monte Carlo simulation. J. Vacuum 119: 284–288. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Wielopolski L, Song Z, Orion I, Hanson AL, G. Hendrey G. 2005. Basic considerations for Monte Carlo calculations in soil. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62: 97–107. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Detailed information can be seen in the fluka web page www.fluka.org.
Cite this article as: Singh VP, Korkut T, Badiger NM. 2018. Comparison of mass attenuation coefficients of concretes using FLUKA, XCOM and experiment results. Radioprotection 53(2): 145–148
All Tables
Linear attenuation coefficients of the concretes by XCOM, experiment (Bashter, 1997) and FLUKA Monte Carlo code at 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV ordinary, hematiteserpentine, ilmenitelimonite, basaltmagnetite, ilmenite, steelscrap and steelmagnetite.
All Figures
Fig. 1
Mass attenuation coefficients of ordinary concretes using FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation codes. 

In the text 
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (fulltext article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 4896 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.