My publications are divided into five topics.  Since some topics overlap, some publications are listed under more than one topic.


Means:  The Paradigm Change Process

Ends:  Instructional Theory for the

New Paradigm


Ends:  Educational Technology for the

New Paradigm


Ends: Organizational Structures for the

New Paradigm




3. Educational Technology for the New Paradigm

Educational technology includes both hard technologies (equipment) and soft technologies (methods) for fostering learning, but the term is commonly associated with hard technologies, and that is my intention here, given that the other categories I have chosen for my publications all address soft technologies.  Hard technologies are far more important for the learner-centered paradigm of education than for the teacher-centered paradigm, and they serve very different roles.  My latest work in this area identifies four major roles and several minor roles, but I have written about roles for hard technologies since the beginning of my career.  The following are my publications in this area, beginning with the four roles, and then arranged from most recent to oldest.

Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES)

Reigeluth, C.M., Aslan, S., Chen, Z., Dutta, P., Huh, Y., Jung, E., Lee, D., Lin, C-Y., Lu, Y-H., Min, M., Tan, V., Watson, S.L., & Watson, W.R.  (2015).  PIES: Technology functions for the learner-centered paradigm of education.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 53 (3), 459-496. DOI 10.1177/0735633115603998  PDF

This article is the culmination of a five-year project by my research team at IU to develop design specifications for a technology platform to support the learner-centered, competency-based paradigm of education, in contrast to most technology tools that support the teacher-centered, time-based paradigm.

Reigeluth, C.M. (2017).  Designing technology for the learner-centered paradigm of education (Chapter 11, pp. 287-316).  In C. Reigeluth, B. Beatty & R. Myers (Eds.), Instructional-design theories and models, Volume IV: The learner-centered paradigm of education.  New York: Routledge.  PDF

Reigeluth, C.M., Watson, W.R., Watson, S.L., Dutta, P., Chen, Z., & Powell, N.D.P.  (2008).  Roles for technology in the information-age paradigm of education: Learning Management Systems. Educational Technology, 48 (6), 32-39.  Also published as Reigeluth, C.M., Watson, W.R., Watson, S.L., Dutta, P., Chen, Z., & Powell, N.D.P.  (2008, October).  Roles for technology in the information-age paradigm of education: Learning management systems.  The F. M. Duffy Reports, 13 (4), 1-14.  Also published as Reigeluth, C.M., Watson, W.R., Watson, S.L., Dutta, P., Chen, Z., & Powell, N.D.P. (2010).  Learning management systems. In F. M. Duffy (Ed.) (2010), Dream! create! sustain!: Mastering the art & science of transforming school systems (pp. 288-314). Leading Systemic School Improvement Series. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.  PDF

This was the first report of my research team.

Reverse Chronology

Reigeluth, C.M., & An, Y.  (2021).  Merging the Instructional Design Process with Learner-Centered Theory: The Holistic 4D Model.  New York, NY: Routledge.  ISBN: 978-0-8153-6079-7.  Media selection and utilization are addressed at several points during the ID process, especially in Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 9.

Lee, D., Huh, Y., Lin, C-Y., Reigeluth, C.M., & Lee, E.  (2021).  Differences in personalized learning practice and technology use in high- and low-performing learner-centered schools in the United States.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 69, 1221–1245.

Lin, C-Y., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2021).  Guidance for wiki-supported collaborative learning and community knowledge building for an entire class: Enhancing learning environments during the COVID19 pandemic.  Revista de Educación a Distancia, 21 (65).  DOI: 10.6018/red.447401 In English:  

Lin, C.Y, & Reigeluth, C.M. (2019).  Scaffolding learner autonomy in a wiki-supported knowledge building community and its implications for mindset change.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 50 (5), 2667-2684.  DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12713  PDF

Lee, D., Huh, Y., Lin, C-Y., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2018).  Technology functions for personalized learning in learner-centered schools.  Educational Technology Research and Development,  66 (5), 1269-1302.  DOI: 10.1007/s11423-018-9615-9

Myers, R.D., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2017).  Designing games for learning (Chapter 8, pp. 205-242).  In C. Reigeluth, B. Beatty & R. Myers (Eds.), Instructional-design theories and models, Volume IV: The learner-centered paradigm of education.  New York: Routledge.  PDF

Aslan, S., & Reigeluth, C.M. (2016).  Investigating "the coolest school in America": How technology is used in a learner-centered school.  Educational Technology Research & Development, 64 (6), 1107-1133.  DOI 10.1007/s11423-016-9450-9

Lin, C-Y., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2016).  Scaffolding wiki‐supported collaborative learning for small‐group projects and whole‐class collaborative knowledge building. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32 (6), 529-547.  DOI 10.1111/jcal.12140  PDF

Reigeluth, C.M.  (2014).  The learner-centered paradigm of education: Roles for technology.  Educational Technology, 54 (3), 18-21.  PDF

Reigeluth, C.M., & Myers, R.D.  (2013).  Serious Game Design Report.  A report prepared for the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory.  Submitted October 2013.  PDF

Watson, W.R., Watson, S.L., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2013).  Education 3.0: Breaking the mold with technology.  Interactive Learning Environments, DOI 10.1080/10494820.2013.764322.  PDF

Yildirim, Z., Reigeluth, C.M., Kwon, S., Kageto, Y., & Shao, Z.  (2013).  A comparison of learning management systems in a school district: Searching for the ideal personalized integrated educational system (PIES).  Interactive Learning Environments, 22 (6), 721-736.  PDF

Reigeluth, C.M.  (2012).  Instructional theory and technology for a post-industrial world.  In R.A. Reiser & J.V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd ed.), pp. 75-83.  Boston, MA: Pearson Education.  PDF

Reigeluth, C.M. (2012).  Teoría instruccional y tecnología para el nuevo paradigma de la educación. RED, Revista de Educación a Distancia. Número 32. 30 de septiembre de 2012. Consultado el (30/09/2012) en  Also published in English as Reigeluth, C.M.  (2012).  Instructional theory and technology for the new paradigm of education.  RED, Revista de Educación a Distancia, 32. September 30, 2012. Retrieved on (30/09/2012) at  PDF

An, Y.J., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2011).  Creating technology-enhanced, learner centered classrooms: K-12 teacher beliefs, perceptions, barriers, and support needs.  Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 28 (2), 54-62.  DOI 10.1080/21532974.2011.10784681. PDF

Aslan, S., Huh, Y., Lee, D., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2011).  The role of personalized integrated educational systems in the information-age paradigm of education.  Contemporary Educational Technology, 2 (2), 95-117.  PDF

Aslan, S., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2011).  A trip to the past and future of educational computing: Understanding its evolution.  Contemporary Educational Technology, 2 (1), 1-17.  PDF

Reigeluth, C.M., Watson, W.R., & Watson, S.L.  (2011).  Personalized integrated educational systems: Technology for the information-age paradigm of education in higher education.  In S.P. Ferris (Ed.), Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation.  Hershey, PA: IGI Global.  PDF


Reigeluth, C.M.  (2010).  Technology and the new paradigm of education.  Contemporary Educational Technology, 1 (1), 84-86.  PDF

Watson, W.R., Lee, S., & Reigeluth, C.M.  (2007).  Learning management systems: An overview and roadmap of the systemic application of computers to education.  In F.M. Neto & F.V. Brasileiro (Eds.), Advances in Computer-Supported Learning (pp. 66-96).  Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.  DOI 10.4018/9781599043555.ch004.ch000  PDF


Reigeluth, C.M., & Joseph, R.  (2002).  Beyond technology integration: The case for technology transformation.  Educational Technology, 42 (4), 9-13.  PDF

Reigeluth, C.M.  (1993).  Functions of an automated instructional design system.  In J.M. Spector, M.C. Polson, & D.J. Muraida (Eds.), Automating Instructional Design: Concepts and Issues.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Educational Technology Publications.  PDF


Reigeluth, C.M., Annelli, J.M., & Otto, S.L. (September 1992).  Technology and school restructuring.  The Electronic School, 11-12.  PDF

Reigeluth, C.M., & Schwartz, E. (1989).  An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations.  Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16 (1), 1-10.  PDF

Reigeluth, C.M., & Garfield, J.M. (1984).  Using videodiscs in instruction: Realizing their potential through instructional design.  Videodisc and Optical Disk, 4 (3), 199-215.  PDF

Yucha, C., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1983).  The use of computers in nursing education, practice and administration.  Computers and Education, 7 (4), 223-226.  DOI 10.1016/0360-1315(83)90011-8. PDF

Reigeluth, C.M. (1979).  TICCIT to the future: Advances in instructional theory for CAI.  Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 6 (2), 40-46.  PDF